Biomedical Ethics: Assignment Week 3
Case Study: Chapters 7 to 12
Objective: The students will complete a Case study tasks that contribute the opportunity to produce and apply the thoughts learned in this and previous coursework to examine a real-world scenario. This scenario will illustrate through example the practical importance and implications of various roles and functions of a long-term care settings. As a result of this assignment, students will be better able to comprehend, scrutinize and assess respectable superiority and performance by all institutional employees.
ASSIGNMENT GUIDELINES (10%):
Students will critically measure the readings from Chapters 7 to 12 in your textbook. This assignment is planned to help you examination, evaluation, and apply the readings and strategies to your of a long-term care settings
You need to read the PowerPoint Presentation assigned for week 3 and develop a 3-4 page paper reproducing your understanding and capability to apply the readings to your long-term care settings. Each paper must be typewritten with 12-point font and double-spaced with standard margins. Follow APA format when referring to the selected articles and include a reference page.
EACH PAPER SHOULD INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING:
1. Introduction (25%) Provide a brief synopsis of the meaning (not a description) of each Chapter and articles you read, in your own words that will apply to the case study presented.
2. Your Critique (50%)
A CASE STUDY: THE LONG TERM CARE OF OLDER PEOPLE
In December 2017 a Royal Commission was appointed by the present Labor government to exam the options for a supportable system of financing the long-term care of older people. The forms of care considered included care in the community, in a person’s own home, and care in residential or nursing homes. Older people receiving long-term care in these settings may also require acute medical care so it was relevant to also look briefly at the general health provision for older people. Since the creation of the NHS older patients have been seen as a drain on resources diverting services away from other patient groups (Wilkinson and Hughes, 2006). Elderly care has always been one of the Cinderella services within the NHS, receiving less than adequate resources despite repeated attempts to ensure it was given priority in resource allocation (Ibid.). Numerous studies have focused on the social deprivation and abuse suffered by people in elderly care homes (Barton, 2009; Biggs et al., 2005; Robb, 2007; Townsend, 2002). The current debates about health care and older people focus on rationing, and on standards of care for the old both in hospitals and in residential and nursing homes. Evidence exists that older people are denied access to treatments provided for younger patient. (Aaron and Schwartz, 2004; Age Concern, 2007). The continuing poor quality of care for older people within the NHS has been the focus of considerable media attention (Abrams, 2008; Brindle, 2007; Evans 2007). In October 2007 The Observer newspaper launched a campaign to ensure that older people in hospital are treated with dignity, following reports of neglect. In the same month The Sunday Times launched a campaign for better care for the elderly in long-term care and highlighted abuse and indignity routinely suffered by people in residential and nursing homes. Both campaigns generated a large public response. It is important to note that long-term care is not free, but is means tested, the state paying only for those who cannot pay for themselves.
1.1 The Findings of the Royal Commission
According to the Royal Commission Report, With Respect to Old Age: A Report by the Royal Commission on Long Term Care (2009), the present system of long term care is characterized by complexity and unfairness. The diversity of providers and funders may operate against the interests of R. ter Meulen, W. Arts, and R. Muffels (eds.), Solidarity in Health and Social Care in Europe, 417-422. © 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers. 418 A. CAMPBELL AND S. JONES individual clients. More importantly the Commission found evidence of bewilderment, ‘a strong sense of loss of control, a sense of actually losing a loved individual to a system that is beyond understanding and which makes individuals feel beyond help. No amount of statistics or cool analysis can take away the human despair which individuals feel when confronted with the system as it is’ (PA2). Although the Commissioners recognize that the Welfare State has considerably improved the lot of older people, they claim that as a society we have ceased to value old age. Many older people now live twenty to thirty years beyond retirement. The financial position of pensioners is variable but many are considerably poorer than those in other groups are, and this is a threat to their security in old age. The present NHS is performance led, resulting in earlier discharges. Discharge from hospital is a critical point for many older people, which, along with other crises can result in the perceived need for residential care. Older people can be forced to sell their homes and cut off their links with local communities by decisions, which are often hastily taken. Although residential and nursing homes may be caring and supportive, older people are then removed from sight and from society. The result is social exclusion of a whole section of society.
1.2 The Commission’s Recommendations
The Commission Report sets out in the first chapter the values that have guided its deliberations. The recommendations begin from the position that old age should not be seen as a problem, but as a time of life with fulfilment of its own. According to the Commissioners older people do continue to play a positive role in society by acting as careers, supporting families, by providing wisdom and advice and by playing an active part in society. However, these positive images are often over shadowed by negative ones. Underlying much of the political language about old age is assumption that old age is a problem. With the expected rise in the numbers of elderly and the rise in their proportion of the population this is thought to be a problem which will become increasingly insoluble in future years. However, such an approach treats the old as a homogenous group, which clearly they are not, and fails to recognize people as individuals with their own needs aspiration and perceptions. Moreover the Commission found that for the UK there is no ‘demographic timebomb’ as far as long-term care is concerned, and as a result costs of care would be affordable. Against these negative images, the Commission suggests a new understanding: older people should not simply be seen as the passive recipients of welfare, rather society should recognize the value inherent in older people, and the value in helping them to continue to realize their potential. The department of Education and Employment’s commitment to lifelong learning should mean learning for life beyond work and into the retirement years. Old age should be seen as a special time when we have the gift of time to develop interests.
CASE STUDY CHALLENGE:
1. Why is Long Term Care important to our overall health care system?
2. What is long term care for the elderly?
3. What percentage of elderly live in nursing homes?
4. What percentage of individuals over 65 will require long term care?
3. Conclusion (15%)
Briefly summarize your thoughts & conclusion to your critique of the case study and provide a possible outcome for Long-term Care setting for elderly. How did these Chapters influence your opinions about Health Economics in a Health ethics Context?
Evaluation will be based on how clearly you respond to the above, in particular:
a) The clarity with which you critique the case study;
b) The depth, scope, and organization of your paper; and,
c) Your conclusions, including a description of the impact of these Case study on any Health Care Setting.
ASSIGNMENT DUE DATE:
The assignment is to be electronically posted in the Assignments Link on Blackboard no later than noon on Sunday, July 14, 2019.
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