# Lab Phy101

Lab Phy101
can you please work on an Energy chapter of phy101 as soon as possible?

Lab 4.1 – Momentum and Energy – Energy and its Conservation
Objective To find out about the different forms of energy and the principle of
conservation of energy.
Materials Computer. Phet Simulation
Introduction This lab introduces the concept of energy and the principle of the
conservation of energy. Before discussing either energy or its
conservation, it is important to specify the object or set of object for which
we are finding the energy. This object or set of interacting objects is
called the system. All other objects in the universe that are not a part of
the system are said to be the environment.
In simple terms, conservation of energy for a system states that the sum of
the total initial energy and the energy transferred between the system and
the environment equals the total final energy of the system:
Etotal initial + Energy Transfer = Etotal final
Energy can be stored in a system via different storage mechanisms. In this
lab we will consider only two storage mechanisms, kinetic energy (KE)
and gravitational potential energy (PEg). The definitions for these energy
types are shown in the table below.

Energy Symbol Meaning Definition Meaning of Variables in Definition
Kinetic Energy KE Energy of
motion 1 /2mv
2 m = mass of object
v = speed of object
Gravitational
Potential
Energy
PEg
Energy stored
in object/earth
system
mgh
m = mass of object
h = height relative to zero height
The location of h=0 is arbitrary.

In the expression for gravitational potential energy, (mgh), note that g is
equal to positive 9.8m/s2. g does not equal a negative number!
The total energy of a system is the sum of the kinetic and gravitational
potential energies:
Etotal = KE + PEg —————————(equation 1)

©2020 by Heidi Van Tassell Mesa Community College Page 4.1.2
Mesa, Arizona 85202
Question 1 Complete the following table by using the definitions above to determine when
each quantity is positive, zero or negative. Two of the answers have been filled
in for you as examples.
Quantity Sign of
Quantity Meaning
Kinetic
Energy
Positive
Zero Object is at rest
Negative
Gravitational
Potential
Energy
Positive Object is located above h=0.
Zero
Negative

There are various ways to transfer energy between the system and the
environment. Work (W) is one of these ways. In this lab, we will only
discuss work for an object moving along a straight line that is exerted by a
force that is directed along that line. For this particular case work, W is
defined as
W = ± Fext d
Where Fext is an external force acting on an object and d is the distance it
travels under the influence of that external force.
If the object moves in the same direction as Fext, then the work is positive.
If the object moves in the direction opposite to the direction of Fext, then
the work is negative.
The SI Units of energy and of work are Joules
Conservation of energy states:
KEi + PEgi + W = KEf + PEgf
(Etotal)i + W = (Etotal)f —————–(equation 2)
Here i and f indicate initial and final states of the system. In this
expression, the work is done by agents outside of the system on an object
inside of the system.
We say that the energy of a system is conserved whenever
(Etotal)i = (Etotal)f.
Question 2 What must the work be for (Etotal)i to be equal to (Etotal)f?

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