an example of a well-written research proposal

an example of a well-written research proposal

Writing an Effective Research Proposal

1. Introduction

Now when visiting Kirkpatrick’s site, some may be disappointed to find that there is no short and sweet answer to this question. With good reason, the steps taken in preparing an effective research proposal are C-Q-RQRS. But honestly speaking, success is if you follow the next series of steps. After looking about over the information, it seems that each lettering is steps taken. C is stating your commitment to the idea. Q is to be inquiring and R is deciding on the research matter. R is to be results-oriented and the final Q is to be qualitative. Now looking at this, the steps have to be the foundation to an effective research which will really target the qualitative research matter. But following on here, Kirkpatrick states the topic in a frustrated researcher’s way and the best and keywords point.

When conducting research, an important underlying question to find an answer to is what typical errors are made by researchers. Kirkpatrick’s website states that a common error made in the very beginning by researchers is making a decision on the first question that they want to answer. Usually, it takes some time to decide on an effective question and most researchers choose the effective question late, and that will make them spend too much time on a question that isn’t that important. Another common error is to turn to statistical tests prematurely. When these tests are done too early, it often leads to having to redo them, and that can become time-consuming when it can be avoided if they were just done at a later time. This book is filled with error theory which helps point out the common errors in research.

An appealing yet information-rich essay about the research methods for research (which has a really cool website for the book). James Kirkpatrick’s book is Research Methods: Effective research methods for any project gathered onto this page. It is very beneficial to visit Kirkpatrick’s website and to get full depth on the advantages of using his research methods. Kirkpatrick is a retired doctor from the World Bank. The research methods that Kirkpatrick will discuss are known to be simple but effective and will make you avoid some of the common errors and make your research more effective and easy to do. This is a really beneficial book to college students or to almost anyone doing research. What is so great about these methods is that it works for any ideas or topic choices that it doesn’t really limit you to a certain method. His procedures have many advantages over different types of methods and that is discussed on Kirkpatrick’s website in a long depth for those looking to get a full understanding of his methods. His work is very beneficial.

2. Background and Significance

The background will serve to identify the reasons why it is necessary to conduct this research as well as what it seeks to accomplish. The background will start by introducing the concept of national identity and will then proceed to discuss the specific case of Singapore and its nation-building efforts. Here, it is important to define national identity and to reflect on the facilitation or hindrance of national-building activities on the political climate in Singapore. As the reader may not be well-versed in Singapore’s modern history, an overview of the island’s political history will be provided to show the correlation between increased political restrictions and national-building efforts, and questioning if this was indeed an effective measure. A historical outline will also give a foundation and a point of reference when discussing between the 1950s-1980s the Speak Mandarin Campaign, the merits of national identity, and what it should entail. This campaign was launched in an attempt to give the Chinese population a language they felt was closely identified with their culture, as the government believed that it would be a unifying force for inter-ethnic relations, and would facilitate the progress of nation-building. This will serve as a perfect example of a national-building activity and will be further explored in later sections. The background will conclude by expressing the belief that national identity is fluid and transient, and has far-reaching implications on small nations in the globalizing world of today. Globalization and modernizing forces are seen as a threat to domestic cultures and traditions, which account for the bewildering sequence of events in recent times where many have turned to the past, to rediscover what they feel has been lost in the hustle and bustle of development.

3. Research Objectives and Questions

Proposals tend to be too general or too specific with respect to the problems to be examined. Being too general is the result of not having focused research objectives. There are usually too many specific aims, each of which is then pursued in too great detail. The objective in writing a proposal is to describe what you will do, why it should be done, how you will do it, and what you expect will result. A clear statement of aims and an explanation of how they will be tested helps the reader to see what lines of alternate investigation you have thought about. It also demonstrates the feasibility of the study. Clarity of objectives is associated with higher quality research, higher research productivity, greater breadth of research dissemination, and wide-ranging research. Clear aims suggesting how and why something will come to pass provide a focus for the proposed research. This, in turn, increases the likelihood of attaining meaningful results and enhances the chance of the research making a noticeable and beneficial contribution. It is essential that the proposed research is manageable in the stated time period. If the aims cannot be achieved, it is not the case that the listener will acknowledge this if the results look negative. It will be assumed that a negative result occurred because the stated aims were not adequately addressed. A realistic assessment of what can be achieved with available resources should also be made. This is crucial if the proposal is being assessed within a competitive funding environment. Any suggestion of a lack of feasibility or unclear indication of methodology will result in the proposal not being funded – there simply are too many other well-qualified investigators around. Moving from the aims to the methods, it is essential to have a clear plan of what will be done. This is best presented as a series of research tasks that can be allocated to times and persons. This demonstrates ability and organization in the planning of the proposed research.

4. Methodology and Data Collection

Once you have an idea, your research idea needs to be classified by design so the proper research can be determined. When doing this, a few things need to be considered: resources, time frame, and capability of the one doing the research. There are various designs, and one must choose which design will be the best in answering the research question. Descriptive studies usually use one of the many forms of qualitative research. This involves the situation to be described using written words and with the use of research tools. A case-type descriptive study is similar to this; its focus is to investigate an entity within a defined context and its barriers between phenomenon and context. Descriptive studies can also employ the use of correlational research. This involves instances where a researcher has no control over events. A better plan would be to do a study on the actual incidence and impact of the phenomena being researched and then followed by a casual comparative research design in an attempt to reveal cause and effect relationships. This would be useful in building theories. Step up again in terms of control is experimental type research. This would be a post-modern example of the phenomena. ZPG has become a major concern in the world. This is an instance where computer simulation would be the experiment due to the inability and time gaps of reproducing the phenomena in real-world events. Finally, there is simulation and model, the most complex and high control research design suited to complex modern DT systems.

5. Expected Results and Conclusion

The question should linger in the mind of the reader. The question that has presented the basis of this work deals with the ability to provide a cell-plasma membrane model to test drug interactions. The question in many ways will not be completely put to rest until in fact such a model is provided and tested. The culmination of this project should provide a basis for future studies in this area of pharmacology. This type of model will yield viable and reliable results as to possible reactions of cell membranes in vivo. It will also provide a means for the medical and scientific community to easily test newly developed and existing medicines. Too often medicines have adverse reactions within the body of a patient. Many of these adverse reactions occur due to interaction of the medicine with cell membranes. A cell-plasma membrane model will offer a safe and clean environment for testing. Any drugs that are found to have adverse effects due to membrane interaction can be readily altered and tested again on the model. This could possibly lead to a safer administration of medication to patients and can also decrease the cost of development and testing for new medicines.

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