do my homework reviews

do my homework reviews

The Impact of Homework on Student Learning: A Comprehensive Review

1. Introduction to the Importance of Homework in Education

Justice and equity also fuel the debate. Absence of homework can lead to failing grades for those students considered to be at risk due to poor work habits and lack of support at home. In addition, homework has been considered to be a road to social mobility and to offer a chance for students to bridge the gap between the instruction received in school and the vision of the knowledge-driven economy. For example, research underscores the added value of work-related activities in different areas, particularly in the case of vocational education. In contrast, children and adolescents involved in prestigious schools can no longer have the luxury of “too much” homework which undercuts their ability to engage in a variety of school and out-of-school experiences. Since other parents have also expressed their opposition to homework, schools often adopt policies aimed at limiting the daily commitment.

Homework is a hot topic in educational research and practice. Public opinion of homework has swung toward the belief that it has a beneficial impact on learning, yet the scientific literature proves to be markedly incoherent and largely dismissive of the general practice of assigning homework. A number of significant volumes in the 1980s and 1990s guided us through the confusing constellation of recommendations and questioning. Those concentrated on the acquisition of knowledge and skills, and cautioned against overburdening students with activities of questionable value. Since then, the public expectation caused by the improved performance of schools, increased enrollments in upper-secondary and more complex expectation of employability as well as good citizenship have politicized the issue.

2. Theoretical Frameworks and Research Methods in Homework Studies

Cognitive theories, such as reformulation theory, suggest a causal chain of homework effects where the repetition produced by student practice of a concept results in reinforcement of its associated neural connections. Several research studies suggest that homework can lead to improved study habits, discipline, and attitudes about learning. Furthermore, the extension of indications fostered by the increased expectations of student performance may result in an increased work and learning ethic. Opportunities for practice or application afforded by out of class assignments likely allow students to change and adapt their own summaries or explanations, leading to improved understanding through student-generated feedback. Providing information or instruction about the homework assignment is frequently recommended as a way for direct reporting to direct engagement. Proper feedback can help the student to evaluate their own efforts and improve future performance based on that evaluation, though it is not a direct measure of cognitive load as discussed in related research.

Control-value theory addresses the question of how homework affects quality of learning rather than the quantity of time students expend. According to this theory, the meaning of the task in relation to a student’s goals and the ability to sustain effort exert a direct impact on task performance. With strong motivation to perform well, students are more likely to encounter multiple ways they can control their learning so they will attempt to shape their environment in ways that help them manage their optimal learning experience.

The three theories most commonly employed in homework research include expectancy-value motivation theory, control-value theory, and cognitive theories. Expectancy-value motivation theory is grounded in the assumption that people are motivated by both their expectancy of succeeding at a task and the value they attach to the task. When faced with a variety of tasks, students may adjust the amount of time they spend on homework based on a cost-benefit analysis. Intrinsic task value and positive expectancies are hypothesized to increase time on task, whereas higher costs associated with time in a student’s mind leads to reduced effort or time devoted to a given task.

3. Benefits and Drawbacks of Homework: Evidence from Empirical Studies

Homework consumes a considerable amount of each student’s day, especially if activities or employment are taken into account. Educators and parents usually reprimand students for not doing a good task. And if a student didn’t comprehend the subject matter, it doesn’t seem very helpful to replicate those efforts. ADHD symptoms and homework are contradictory. It doesn’t seem to be as efficient as it is for those who learn little. Besides, it can adversely impact the building of social or leisure skills. High school students may consider this to be nonsensical and reduce their learning time. Mindful homework projects without feedback can be inefficient and discouraging. Other issues may be caused by the promised advantages of homework. If a student advances at a diverse tempo from his or her colleagues, individualized learning can only take a long time without wasting more time than is required on homework.

Homework has positives, but it also has significant negatives. In the 21st century, much of what a student doesn’t understand can be covered in class. Indeed, many studies conclude that starting to learn for the first time at home is not as useful as starting to learn in class. But homework is necessary for cultivating good study habits. Homework can promote individualized and tailored learning. Homework provides frequent feedback on progress, especially through self-assessment and teacher assessment. Individual practice questions can be designed to optimize a student’s learning. Homework can free up class time for more relevant questions. After-school work can address learning disabilities. Homework can also motivate the discovery of new things or a better understanding of a subject.

4. Effective Homework Strategies for Different Student Populations

On the other hand, if current values about the form that education should take prevail, we should predict either no relationships or negative relationships between the amount of homework third and twelfth graders do and generally influenced instructional effectiveness variables. These variables include feedback to a student after the assignment, the remediation and enrichment of a learning activity before, during, and after the assignment, expectations for a lesson’s learning, maintaining student focus, managing student behavior, prompt starts to the lesson, and student participation. Clearly, our determinations hinge on our social values and the instructional circumstances that unfold in the classroom. We have some ideas as to what can be done to promote effective learning and maximize the learning that takes place in the home (in many cases) during traditional homework periods. It may be that teachers have to problem solve and think through traditional belief systems about grades, standards, and homework. They may have to rely on both strong pedagogy and an understanding of how homework fits into and supports that pedagogy. It is not an easy thing to bring about.

The effectiveness of homework can be influenced by myriad strategies and variations in pedagogical structure. For the time being, let us assume that time on task for homework is a given. Given this assumption, what might be effective homework strategies that can ameliorate the effects of socioeconomic background and qualities of instruction? Whatever is done before preschool often fosters learning, especially in literacy of children from lower SES backgrounds. Classrooms that maintain student focus and demand high levels of student participation, have high expectations for students, maintain good teacher-student relationships, but also have high levels of order and organization are effective environments for student learning. It is reasonable to assume that homework when incomplete early in the student’s career, and for children who have various initial discrepancies in academic preparation, can produce positive effects when these preconditions are in effect. When homework is placed at the center of the crucible, as it were, our predictions will be borne out.

5. Future Directions and Implications for Educational Practice

Future research also needs to consider the optimal amount of homework for high-achieving students. These students, too, may face diminishing returns from homework. For the students who spend extraordinary amounts of time on homework each night, the benefits may be diminished. Future research should be conducted to carry out a thorough analysis of the effectiveness of homework assignments in both high- and low-poverty schools, particularly in light of the national standards movement. Although homework is mandated and regulated, there is little evidence to indicate how it promotes achievement or works to close the achievement gaps between advantaged and disadvantaged students. Finally, future studies should investigate how homework supports learning in areas other than completion of study guides and workbook exercises.

Alfie Kohn (2006) has expressed concern that homework may heighten the achievement gap, especially for students living in poverty. For these students, homework may be less beneficial or more harmful than it is for students from higher income families, whose families can provide additional resources and guidance. The question of whether homework exacerbates the achievement gap needs to be answered, especially in light of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) and its requirement for all students to be proficient by the 2013-2014 school year.

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