how to write research proposal

how to write research proposal

Writing an Effective Research Proposal

1. Introduction

Before continuing in writing a research proposal, a person must assess or look into themselves to determine which topic is most interesting and engaging. This is important in order to substantiate a case to a university or other funding body that a research idea is worthy of actually researching. And has a significant purpose or outcome. Although the thought of changing a topic is usually a possibility as the research project evolves and takes place. The proposal is often modified to match the requirements since it is commonly submitted to a more senior member of the academic community or a funding body for the research topic at The point on which approval is actually determined depicts the second the research proposal is important for a student. Any previous experience in creating and developing a research project has shown that if a research proposal is approved it will make the research process much more unproblematic since there is a direct reference to an already documented plan. This is fairly advantageous for a student new to research experiences. The defines steps or deviations from the approach can revert back to the proposal to ensure that the topic is not moved too far from the original idea. This is proficient especially since the proposal will not just be a guideline for the student, but for someone supervising and assessing the research as well.

Any sort of future research starts with a written proposal as the proposal specifies the plan for the research project and the reporting that will be done after the research has been completed. After the proposal has been written, the subsequent stage incorporates the time when the research report is to be done. The approach composed will manage the report in deciding and serving as a point by point layout of the specific research to take place. It is safe to say that the research project will most likely be recognized toward the end of a term. A successful research proposal should explain the purpose of the research project and define the approach or methodology that will be used to achieve the desired outcome. This is particularly essential when the research is pointed to on implementing a solution for a current issue as in a lot of cases and an alternative methodology is suggested.

2. Research Objectives

The researcher’s previous visits to Harare high schools have brought about the realization of a large disparity between former and current model C high schools and the traditionally strong government schools. This is based on the stratification that has occurred through the economic hardships of the past years. The government schools are often grossly underfunded and are unable to charge fees that can compete with the former model C and private schools. Many of these government schools are not even able to afford computers or an Internet connection, while some of the former model C schools are attaining impressive results from their use of ICT. This situation would make selecting a sample for comparisons of ICT use and effectiveness very easy, and it is probable that an attempt to bridge the ICT gap may be suggested later.

There is very little documentation on the state and level of ICT use in Zimbabwean schools; however, the researcher’s experiences and discussions with teachers, students, and parents have shown that the use has mainly been word processing and has been largely for administrative and management tasks. This is far different from evidence in developed countries that ICT has the capability to facilitate student-centered learning and better understanding of concepts through tools such as simulations and the access to vast databases of information. The researcher has built a belief that most Zimbabwean teachers have never fully understood the potential ICT has for learning and that most still have a discomfort with the technology and lack the skills to use it effectively. This situation may create a challenge to the researcher, as the potential subjects of the research will most likely include the teachers themselves. This would allow for interesting observations about teacher preparedness to use ICT and their understanding of its potential.

The “suggested” research proposal will revolve around the research topic, “An investigation of the attitude and readiness of teachers to use information and communication technology in the Harare high schools.” The research topic is derived from the researcher’s interest in technology and also his experience with how ICT is largely an unexplored field in Zimbabwe’s education sector. There is great dependence on donor funding to implement ICT in schools, yet there is low attainment of beneficial results. This is evidenced by O’Neill’s claim that schools in developing countries have been relatively slow to embrace ICT and that the “tendency of projects has production of technology itself rather than the quality of education, which is what ICT is supposed to improve.”

3. Methodology

In the next stage, the researchers took a case study approach to the process of making green products. At this stage, the researcher aims to obtain detailed information on the new products made with the material, in this case, plastic. The researcher will also look at the right methods to improve the quality of products and innovate new products. In-depth interviews will be conducted during the case study to understand the changes in the product and methods of making, and to determine whether the end result is an error-free and eco-friendly product. Any data obtained from the interviews and case studies will be represented in the form of a fishbone diagram, showing the current system and the advanced system. The compilation of this data will provide insights into the problems that exist in the production of products and will serve as the output of the case study phase.

The next step is for the researcher to make a mapping concept of the typology of products produced from the processing of plastic using the soft system methodology. With this method, the researcher aims to see the full side of the problem by building real tangible activity models constructed from the viewpoint of individuals or groups who feel they have a problem. This process ends with fixing the problems identified in the model. The drawing phase is then used to facilitate the drawing of conclusions, aiming to find an effective and realistic solution. In conclusion, this step aims to gain a better understanding of the development of products made of plastics.

B. Data Collection For qualitative data, the researcher collects data through in-depth interviews with guidance from several experts and practitioners in the field of innovation and entrepreneurship, particularly in the manufacture of green products from plastics. This will allow the researcher to obtain a deep understanding of the development and innovation that exist in the plastics industry to support the manufacture of green products. In addition, the researcher also conducted observations and learned anything associated with the research topic. Data collected from interviews and observations will be recorded in the form of notes through a field diary.

A. Research Design The research design that will be used in this study involves using a design that combines qualitative and quantitative data. The study on this design was motivated by the increased credibility of the results to use the data combination method supported with the current development of the multi-paradigm research.

4. Expected Results

The expected outcome of the research project is an increased understanding of tattooed women. This insight will be valuable to those in the helping professions working with this population. It can also serve as a foundation for future research on this topic. An increased understanding of the way in which women with tattoos are viewed by others will provide insight into the reasons for “tattoo regret.” This information may be useful in the creation of prevention programs for those at risk for regret. The study of prejudice against tattooed women is more basic in nature, but research findings can be used to inform those in the helping professions, as well as the general public, about the harmful effects of stigmatization. Overall, anticipated results are several conference presentations and papers as well as manuscript preparation for journal submission. Given the exploratory nature of these studies, the immense amount of untested hypotheses and supportive anecdotal evidence, there is great potential for interesting findings to emerge. We hope that this research will stimulate more work on these topics and others related to body art.

5. Conclusion

Above all, writing this proposal has been a challenging and arduous process, but an intellectually rewarding one. Many students consider the crafting of a research idea to be the final product of a doctoral degree and fail to allocate the time and resources to investigate the myriad of complex issues involved in the nature of inquiry into human behavior. As methodology and epistemology become increasingly complex, both research funding agencies and PhD granting institutions are recognizing the importance of training future researchers. This proposal is taking a first step toward molding a research idea into a funded research project and transitioning from a student into a scholar in the field.

It is an important requisite to add a section on the implications to practice, policy, and theory. It is evident that the bid fits well with the themes of this funding agency from those domains. This is also a strong indicator of an understanding and mastery of the idea that to know what to research is to know how to research. A well-articulated research idea that predicts how it will result in findings that have implications for the near and distant future is a key asset to a funding agency.

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