literature review apa example

literature review apa example

Literature Review in APA Format

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1. Introduction

In academic writing, it is important to have some organization to your writing. Whether you are writing a report, a case study analysis or an essay, a good structure will help you to clarify your thoughts and make your writing more understandable for a reader. This is especially true for a literature review, where you need organization so that the reader doesn’t get lost in a confusing and chaotic trail of information. This can happen to a writer if, in the process of critically evaluating the articles in chosen field, the literature review writer loses track of all the articles he has read. What recourse do you have so that you don’t lose your train of thought? A good strategy is to begin by constructing a temporary “Miscellaneous” section, and at the end of your reading, re-assigning all information to more specific sections. In any case, the writer should take note of it whether in the form of some sort of document or a mental note to come back to the article at a later date when the specifics are more compelling. When constructing an organization, you should consider the audience that you are trying to present to. What should they know before they read the literature review? For a beginner audience, you might want to provide some historical background in your chosen field, stating the time period to which the review’s articles are taking place. If you are evaluating specific scientific theories or discussing the findings of a specific type of experimental study, for instance, this information may be best left for the articles on said topics. Typically, a historical background would be grouped in a section called “Introduction,” though this term is often used very loosely, and should be interpreted as setting the stage for a general understanding. In those theoretical studies and finding specific studies, it is likely that providing all this relative information and organize the articles into some sort of review will indeed clarify a new concept to the reader. Consider where these types of articles would fit best into the new structure, based on what the audience should know at that point. Another consideration is the breadth of the audience; in a classroom setting, a student might be motivated to read the review as a means of learning, so the teacher’s article should be treated as an important concept correlate with that specific study. With that, the most important organizational advice is probably to be attentive to your own thought processes as you evaluate the articles in your chosen area. By making a conscious effort to think about your organizational regimen, you’ll be making an extra effort to think about your notes, thus making a greater long-term comprehension of your review.

2. Literature Review Methodology

The exclusion/inclusion criteria were executed to ensure that only the most pertinent and dominant pieces of literature regarding principal leadership and its effects on school effectiveness were reviewed and presented in the annotated bibliography. When searching for material to include in the literature review, the inclusion/exclusion criteria usually asked three key questions. These include: Does this piece of literature address the issues of principal leadership and its effectiveness in regards to student learning and school improvement? What type of literature is it (i.e., qualitative/quantitative/factual)? And is it recent and does it apply to today’s current state of education?

An initial simple search was conducted to recognize relevant resources on the topic. Using specific keywords such as “primary school leadership” and “principal leadership,” the main education databases were searched. These include ERIC, EBSCO host, Wilson web, and Informit. This was an inaugural step to gain both a wide-ranging array of literature on principal leadership and the ability to browse many articles swiftly. In future searches, exclusion/inclusion criteria were utilized to narrow down the search and pinpoint specific articles, book chapters, and reports.

In order to uncover the answers to the research questions, a comprehensive review of the literature and pertinent resources was undertaken. This involved identifying, locating, synthesizing, and then presenting the information from the literature. The purpose was to scrutinize the issues, debates, controversies, theoretical underpinnings, and current practices regarding principals’ emerging leadership and its impact on practice, student learning, and school effectiveness.

3. Key Findings and Analysis

The findings were revealed in the construction of a theory model of the ERP system adoption decision process. From the four case studies, it is safe to say that the ERP system was perceived as a strategic system and not just an IT system. This was because the ERP system affects many areas in the company and changes the way things are done because of the business process reengineering that comes with implementing the new system. The ERP system was also noted to have vague project outcomes and the decision to implement the system was often underestimated. Due to these reasons and external consulting, three out of the four sampled cases have decided to outsource the implementation of the ERP system. The case study companies who have decided to outsource to an external service provider have noted the intention of better implementation and desiring higher cost and time predictability.

The key findings and analysis from the articles provide several standpoints and thus are valuable to a piece that is designed to add further understanding in the topic of ERP outsourcing. The Outsourcing Decision for the Enterprise System: An Exploratory Study has an objective to understand the various different perspectives and decisions outcomes that companies have made in the process of ERP system implementation. The study focused on the initial stage of an ERP system adoption, attempting to identify the possible factors affecting companies in deciding to implement an ERP system. This study was conducted using multiple case studies where there were four companies interviewed and discovered a certain pattern and relative decisions the case sample studied has made.

4. Implications and Recommendations

Law and its impactful relationship to the education of students with disabilities cannot be understated. It has now become abundantly clear that there are barriers to free and inclusive education, despite more than 25 years of universal public education for students with disabilities. This has significant implications for educators to understand how certain laws have affected a disabled person’s access to education, within the contextual understanding of the socio-historical development of education for students with disabilities. A deeper understanding of the historical context in education will provide better sites of change for educators to improve conditions for students with disabilities that are still mandated by legislative directives of inclusion.

Secondly, there are far-reaching consequences for these varied identities and positions on other people within family and community domains. There is a need for the implications of this diversity to be studied further within family and community contexts and for the findings to be used to inform policy and practices that embrace difference and foster full inclusion of all members of society. This means both children and adults need support services, and society cannot afford for children at schools to be learning that difference is associated with deficiency and low expectations. Available programs in special education and segregated schooling will not produce the skills for facilitation of an inclusive community because it often leads to further marginalization. This implication relates to wider issues and changes the focus of education of students with disabilities from developing life skills to achieving equal educational outcomes.

Firstly, the central themes extracted from these identities and positions need practical ways of putting into play non-discriminatory opportunities for focused academic support. For instance, classroom management and accessing curriculum instruction. There is the implication that through self-identification, teachers will have a better understanding of impairment and its effect on learning. Realistic and effective support systems can be incorporated with the increased knowledge of students with disabilities in mind.

5. Conclusion

As a part of the literature review process, this section is a vital part of the calculation of a writer. It is associated with the proof or evidence provided and the way it is explained. It leads to the summarization of a write-up, providing a clear understanding of whether the write-up is a research paper, investigation, or personal views. This process also has to lead to a better understanding to develop new questions or ideas for further research and also leads to the identification of the suitable methodology and analysis that can be used for new research. This series of processes usually helps to encourage oneself for further investigation and better results than the write-up has already achieved. This series of processes encouraged the writer to do a literature review process in order to evaluate information from various resources that can generate a clearer understanding of the topic that is intended to be investigated further. This is the proof for this writer in doing this literature review write-up from previous of his intentions on developing his understanding unto his current research on knowledge transfer and technological innovation.

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