literature review example apa

literature review example apa

Literature Review in APA Format

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1. Introduction

The purpose of this article is to review existing research on reading comprehension strategies as a complement to the study conducted by Block (2004) on fifth grade students. Although this particular study does not go further into testing a particular teaching method or strategy for its effectiveness in comprehension, it is imperative that the researcher comprehends exactly what is reading comprehension and what are strategies necessary to comprehend. As stated in the Block study, reading comprehension is understanding and interpretation. This definition in non-educational terms is fiction! There are of course exceptions to this statement when fact is presented but, for the most part, differentiating reading as comprehension as interpretation from reading for reconstruction is one of the literary bases of reading comprehension. Although today it is an unpopular term, interpretation holds a significant role in literature and comprehension of literature is not solely based on the author’s intentions. According to Harwayne (1986), reading literature at all levels should involve personal transactions of students with the text. By reading for comprehension and based on the current definition of comprehension, this personal transaction should be various interpretations and understanding throughout the reading process.

2. Literature Review Methodology

In order to provide the most accurate and relevant literature review, a specific methodology has been used to gather the information in this document. This involved a search of computerized abstracts using associated electronic resources including that of the JSTOR, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases. These were used to find articles based on health promotion or in a related field. Given the vast number of articles available on health promotion, inclusion criteria were set to narrow the results to a more manageable amount. These criteria restricted the search to articles published within the last ten years and only articles written in the English language. Any age group was included while all articles pre-dating 2003 or written in any language other than English were excluded. Lastly, given the extensive list of possible health promotion strategies, the search was further narrowed to include only articles involving specific strategies as defined by those whose general goal is to improve the health of a given population and prevent disease. These include health education, nutritional interventions, behavioral change programs, and prevention aimed at avoiding health-endangering activities. The search was conducted using a combination of keywords to describe the key concept (health promotion) and the population level specific strategies. This resulted in many articles based on a single specific strategy and a second set based on similar studies. This was expected, and thus the abstract search tool was believed to be the most efficient way to find articles for later review.

3. Key Findings and Analysis

Coates’ study was undertaken in the education sector, one which the current researcher will be using as a testing ground for the most part. It is evident that variation in industry type may affect employee commitment and absenteeism in different ways. Meyer et al. (1989) introduced the concept of focus foci with respect to commitment. This is basically a method of categorizing the commitment as it affects the employee-employer linkage, and is further distinguished as either a personal or organizational level/an object-based or a relational construct. Meyer et al. continued to develop CCM proposing that affective commitment is a most influential predictor for the behavior of each employee. Absenteeism should be more strongly associated with an affectively committed employee who misses work to avoid letting the organization down, rather than the employee wants to avoid losing attendance-related benefits.

Literature reviewed in this chapter will provide an understanding for academic and non-academic aspects of commitment from employees in Trinidad and Tobago, and the approach that an organization may take when tackling the issue of absenteeism. It has been shown that the success of commitment between the employer and employee is beneficial for both parties, as high levels of affective commitment may breed lower levels of voluntary absenteeism and vice versa (Mowday et al., 1982). It should be considered that the type of commitment between the employee and employer is cyclical in nature as exhibited in Social Exchange Theory (Settoon et al., 1996), as perceived organizational support increases the level of affective commitment in an upward sequence. An employee with high levels of continuance commitment may still be absent more often if the perceived organizational support is not mutual. High levels of continuance commitment may also breed higher levels of involuntary absenteeism as the employee may feel obliged to attend work even if they are in no fit state to perform their duties. Further analysis into the tridimensional model of commitment is conveyed by Coates et al. (2000) that research concurrently revolving around the relationship between affective commitment and involuntary absenteeism is limited, specifically testing the premise of whether affective commitment is indeed a predictor for this type of absenteeism.

The purpose of this chapter is to synthesize the research that was undertaken in the current study. This will be done by critically reviewing the literature and the research, focusing upon the findings, analysis, and discussion, as recommended by Bryman (2008).

4. Critique of Existing Literature

This chapter has critically reviewed the existing literature that is significantly related to the subject matter discussed in this thesis. Literature regarding marketing concepts and marketing segmentation has been reviewed. The chapter has been structured as follows. First, the relevant literature of marketing concept has been reviewed. Later, the literature of market segmentation has been critically reviewed. Literature regarding marketing concepts is based on various different views of different authors within a span of over 5 decades but with the same basic concepts. According to the American Marketing Association, marketing is a process whereby a company’s product or services are being introduced and promoted to a potential customer. Philip Kotler has defined marketing as a social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating, offering, and exchanging products of value with others. McKenzie and Woodruff have a different approach to the concept. According to them, the role of marketing in an organization is different. It is a set of processes that is followed to achieve the completion of a particular project.

5. Conclusion and Recommendations

Firstly, the revision process is very important and valuable to help identify weaknesses of the paper or article, as well as strengthen the points the author is trying to make. This is especially important with the article being summative of a research degree completed by two candidates. Much of what has been provided is anecdotal based on experience, lacking in evidence. The revision process should be done at least twice: the first revision should be done shortly after writing the article, so that further information could be sought if necessary; the second revision should be done after taking a short break from the article. This allows the author(s) to return to the article with fresh perspective. As the article makes several implications, it may have been evident sometimes that there was a lack of clarity, or mixed messages were being conveyed. In times like this, it may be best to get someone else to read through the article to get an outsider’s perspective. This is particularly relevant to the article’s case study. Due to the potential sensitivity and legal facets of the study, all those involved must gain informed consent. In order to fortify the hypothetical intervention provided in Roughman, it may be best to first conduct a separate small study with a similar focus group to the college panel. Always consider potential stress factors that could affect the concentrate on the comfort and safety of participants.

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