research proposal format example

research proposal format example

Research Proposal Format Example

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1. Introduction

The Primacy of Deductive Research Deductive reasoning is “a type of logic in which one goes from a general statement to a specific instance”. Keeping this definition in mind, it is fairly simple to grasp what is deduced. If the end result of research is to test a theory, deducing is the more appropriate method to use. A hypothesis is developed and operationalized, and then data is collected to test whether the operationalization was an accurate measure and to see if the data obtained proves or disproves the hypothesis. A successful result is one which supports the hypothesis. In the case of research with a more practical aim, the testing of a hypothesis might not be analyzing whether one thing causes another, but it still involves the same process. The bottom line is always the same: have we provided evidence to support our social reality.

We are about to discuss the two main researching strategies. Students usually conduct one of the two, but the best researchers tend to meld the two. They can be characterized simply as a sliding scale with one end of the scale being entirely deductive and the other end of the scale being entirely inductive. The methods used in actually conducting research tend to revolve around a sequential, combined inductive-deductive approach. An example of this might be to conduct a series of interviews (inductive) to refine a questionnaire developed at the end of this process to test a hypothesis (deductive).

2. Literature Review

An USA Today article found on the internet reviews a study where college students were randomly assigned to play a violent or non-violent game. The students who played the violent games had an increase in aggressive feelings (Hollon, 2003). Studies that address both genders have also been done. A study conducted on males by Irwin and Gross found that after playing a violent game, males were less likely to trust and more likely to retaliate against unknown peers (Mangione, 2004). A study on females conducted by Karen E Dill found that women who play more violent video games are more likely to have hostile expectations with other women and have less empathy with battered women (Mangione, 2004). Although much of this research currently shows a correlation, it is important to note that many of these studies are limited by their ability to judge causation.

This brings me to my next point, which is research on the effects of playing violent video games. In the past few years, with the success of the gaming industry, research on this topic has grown, with much of this research still in its preliminary stages. The majority of research on this topic has been done in Western Europe and North America. A recent meta-analysis done by the APA (2003) has concluded that playing violent video games is linked to aggressive behavior and thoughts. With the rate of video game playing in children increasing and the greater number of adults playing video games, there have also been studies done on the effects of playing violent video games in adults.

It is estimated that 92% of children play video games, with more than half of them playing games on a daily basis. With the video game industry bringing in more than 10 billion dollars in 2002, it is obvious that video games are now a part of our society. In the 25 years since the industry began, video games have evolved from their early roots and are now being played on high-end computers and gaming consoles with a wide assortment of games. Of particular interest to many psychologists and researchers is the increased realism and violence in video games. Today’s video games feature vast cinematic effects, more realistic graphics, and greater interactivity with countless other players with live voice and text communication. With many new games coming with an “M” for mature rating, there has been much concern about the effects of video games on children, many of them involving violent content. Decades of research examining video game effects on children have concluded that video games can cause an increase in aggression.

Playing violent video games has become much more than a recreational activity for many adolescents. In the following literature review, I address the possible effects of violent video games on adolescents. I will provide a brief history of the video game industry and review some research on the effects of playing violent games. I will also then discuss what is known about the relationship between aggression and video game content. Finally, I will discuss some areas for future research on this topic.

3. Methodology

Qualitative method: This method is applied for researching the result. The problem is studied and observed thoroughly to find out possible causes and the sources of the problem. The data can be collected in primary or secondary form. Primary data is more accurate than the second one, but in this case, only secondary data is available because the company doesn’t keep the previous records for the problems as how and why they occurred. So mostly the observation will take place. This type of data can be obtained through many ways. The one useful for this kind of research is interviewing. In this case, a group of experienced people on the problem will be asked certain questions to find the cause of that problem. This can also be done through focus group or direct interviews. The data can also be observed by the employees of the organizations by seeing what they do as it is also a way of finding out the cause.

3.1 Method Method is the way to search for the result and cause of the problem that occurs. In this particular research work, the problem is stated and the result is expected from that problem. The research work will involve both qualitative and quantitative methods to search for the result.

Methodology states the strategy that can be followed for accomplishing the proposed research. It also states the sources of collecting the necessary data and the possible constraints that may be affecting the result of the research work. The methodology of this research involves the descriptions of the research design, types of data to be collected, and the data collection process. The data analysis and the sampling processes will also be described in detail.

4. Expected Results

Obtaining a Raman spectrum from just one organelle or nanostructure will require two types of system resolution. The first resolution is in the optical sense and is accomplished by the confocal nature of the Raman system; we have already demonstrated this in the Raman imaging work. The second resolution required is in the spectral sense and the ability to distinguish the spectrum from a specific component against the rest of the cellular background. This is where the resonant Raman enhancement is advantageous due to the narrow bandwidth over which the enhancement occurs. Because the Raman scattering cross section is so low, the use of high aperture oil immersion objectives and/or nano-optimized solid immersion lenses may be required to obtain a signal from specific sub-cellular components. An immersion objective also increases the collection efficiency and numerical aperture, which will be advantageous for in-vivo work.

Our preliminary work shows that the cells respond to our Raman excitation wavelengths with resonant enhancements. This is evidenced by measuring the cellular autofluorescence signal while tuning the Raman system through the vibrational modes of DNA/RNA and proteins. The resonant nature of the signal is key to performing microspectral analysis all the way to the diffraction limit. During microspectral analysis, it is probable that specific vibrational modes of cellular organelles and/or nanostructures will be located. By targeting these specific sub-cellular components with the Raman system, it will be possible to obtain a Raman spectrum from just that micro-region.

5. Conclusion

– Restate your research problem. – Before you go further, remind the readers about the big picture of your research. People usually fail to comprehend the Ah-ha! Effect about the significance of a study. This is because they are too deeply involved with the problem and sometimes lost in track. This leads them to more likely prefer something more pragmatic. – And then, you should restate your hypothesis. This is important to give readers a final reminder about your perspective on the problem. – What you have done. Give approximately one paragraph about your methodologies and if possible, you may divide them based on the steps of your research. – And now, your highlight, give a comprehensive explanation about the potential impact of your study. Discuss it with no special bounded timeline, from the short-term impact, intermediate, and the long-term impact. – Pro and contra. State your expectations from the result. Sometimes your hypothesis is rejected and gives an unexpected result. It’s possible to reshape your expectations because you now have more understanding about the problem. And if possible, give a potential way to avoid failure.

This is the very last section of your proposal. In this section, what comes to your mind is, should you have to answer the question “So what?”, “Why is this important?” or “What’s the reason I must provide some funds for you?”. In short, you have to make readers believe that your study is very important and has to be conducted. Convincing is a keyword for this section. You have to persuade the readers at the big shot level. And how? Assume them if the study is not conducted. Also, show the potential impact of your study on the community, science progress, technology, etc. And more importantly, show the ‘BLACK’ side if your topic does not have any solution, whether it may harm the society or just waste a lot of cost and become a potential financial issue. And lastly, give an expectation that your study has the possibility to solve the problem and provide any end benefits. In a glance, the conclusion should contain the following sub-sections:

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