the chemistry homework help online

the chemistry homework help online

The Fundamentals of Chemistry: A Comprehensive Guide

1. Introduction to Chemistry

This text is intended to introduce the fundamentals of chemistry to students who have a limited background in either chemistry or mathematics. To meet these objectives, we have followed the policy of presenting facts first, then hypotheses, and finally theories, with the concept of change of physical and chemical properties being reinforced throughout the text. Since calculus is not required for this text, standard equations and special formulas for those situations in chemistry have been provided. Makes the text unique by interrelating it with mathematics, thus reducing the necessity for a whole separate mathematics course. The laboratory manual integrates both the text and the student’s laboratory work. The laboratory program serves to reinforce each facet of the material and additionally provides the student with some content beyond the text. Finally, a computer manual is provided which will enable the student to apply computers in both his chemical and mathematical work. Since this is to integrate with the current Equamatic 140 system, these materials are aimed primarily at beginning and lower-division chemistry courses.

Chemistry integrates scientific knowledge from many areas, which makes it applicable to more kinds of situations than we may have anticipated. At a minimum, every responsible citizen needs to know something about the principles and problems of chemistry. As a subject to be studied, chemistry encompasses an enormous range of activities from simple tests that indicate the presence or absence of some substance to complex experiments that measure fractions of a billionth of a gram of an exotic substance that disappears after a few millionths of a second.

2. Basic Concepts and Principles

Suppose you are interested in learning “everything” about the world of chemistry. To become acquainted with its basic rules, you must first have a general idea of its philosophy, history, and language. If you were learning a common language such as English, you would study the letters of the alphabet, and then learn how to place these units of language in various combinations to represent concepts and ideas. These combinations form words, and the words are combined to form sentences, then paragraphs, and finally complete stories. As you study the language, you would try to associate names, actions, and objects with specific symbols and sounds. A similar process is useful as you turn your attention to mastering the specialized language and way of thinking of the science of chemistry.

Chemistry is a vast field that has its own special language and way of looking at the world. On one level, the terms and concepts of chemistry describe many of the most mysterious features of everyday life. From a more scientific perspective, the science of chemistry describes the properties, changes, and interactions of all matter. To learn and appreciate the principles and applications of chemistry, you must first learn its language and its way of looking at the world. This chapter will help you develop the necessary concepts and vocabulary.

3. Chemical Reactions and Equations

Chemical equations are a representation of a chemical reaction using symbols and numbers and are balanced by using the Law of Conservation of Matter. The 2 is treated as a factor and written as a coefficient. When you add the substances react and give, the equation is written as 2Fe + 3/2O2 > Fe2O3. The formula in words [reactants used] > products formed + energy. Not actually used in the chemical reaction [hence an exothermic process]. Energy change is shown above the arrow +: energy absorbed -=, energy is released =.

Evidence of a chemical reaction can be: change in temperature, color change, formation of a precipitate, gas bubbling, or a light or flame being produced. The ease of reaction depends on the chemical nature of the substances and the conditions under which the reaction is carried out. Scientists study reaction rates to find out how long it takes for a reaction to occur.

Reactions are the occurrence of a chemical change. A chemical system is a chemical substance integrated into a closed system to allow us to observe and study it. In a reaction, a new substance is formed [reactants > products]. Reactants are the starting substances and products are the new products. For example, when hydrogen and oxygen gas are mixed together and a flame is applied, they explode. In the chemical reaction, the hydrogen and oxygen gases react to form water vapor. A gas is another product [the explosion].

4. The Periodic Table and Elements

In previous chapters, we learned that matter is made of atoms, and that different elements have unique atoms. It should then seem reasonable both to organize the elements on the basis of their atom and structure, and to use this organization to make predictions about the physical and chemical properties of the element. A graphic summary of this organization is known as the Periodic Table. The periodic table has been around for over eighty years – and yet the Periodic Table is an evolving aspect of chemistry and is subject to frequent revision. As recently as 1989, elements 104, 105, 106, 107, and 108 have been discovered, and this list continues to grow. Similarly, changes in how we understand the chemistry of the atoms of these elements will result in changes in the periodic table of these elements. Nevertheless, elements with atomic numbers ranging from hydrogen, 1, through to the 92nd element, uranium, are relatively stable and occur naturally on the earth’s surface. These elements are created in processes of nuclear fission or in the naturally occurring fission reaction, and are referred to as transuranic elements. In the modern periodic table, the vertical columns, or groups, contain elements with similar chemical properties, while the horizontal rows, or periods, reflect the recurring changes in properties of the elements as moving from left to right.

Section: The Periodic Table and Elements. 4-1. Introduction. 4-2. The Periodic Table. 4-3. Basic Units: Atoms and Their Structures. 4-4. Elements and the Periodic Table. 4-5. Group IA: Alkali Metals. 4-6. Group IIA: Alkaline Earth Metals. 4-7. Group VIIA: Halogens. 4-8. Group VIIIA: The Noble Gases. 4-9. Transition Elements and Lanthanoids. 4-10. Other Elements.

5. Key Branches of Chemistry

5.1 Introduction Many chemists have worked for a long time to create a quite complete definition of their subject. Although doubts still exist, we can agree on the importance of mentioning composition, structure and properties to define the program of the area for different types of matter, including biological and non-biological systems. These ideas correspond to divisional aspects of chemistry: in general, we have separate branches taking care of organization classified from simple to complex systems. Each one appears to present different learning strategies characterized by the interconnection of knowledge within the same macro area. just stated that there are more than forty known specialties, which appears greatly immense for the curriculum of chemistry courses in different universities around the world. In general, there are areas devoted to different important aspects of simple and complex micro-building blocks responses. Topics devoted to extreme conditions and different types of measurements and system control.

In this segment, you will be introduced to the most important branches of chemistry. You will learn what is the scope of each of these branches and how the subject of chemistry is intimately related to all of them. Whether you are a student, researcher or a teacher, this chapter should be useful to enhance your understanding of the breadth of chemistry, an essential component in the education of any serious science student. The understanding of the diversity of the branches of chemistry is central for anyone interested in applying knowledge in chemical-oriented research or work. Those pursuing studies in the field of science education will also find the insights contained in this document to be most illuminating in their future practice as educators devoted to spreading specialized knowledge of the natural sciences. So, let’s begin by exploring the basic branches of chemistry in some detail. In the process, you will appreciate that chemistry is much more than you ever thought.

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